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Wargames

Wargames Inhaltsangabe & Details

Der Schüler David ist ein Computerfreak. Eines Tages loggt er sich zufällig in ein geheimes Computer-System ein. Er wird zum Spiel aufgefordert und ahnt nicht, was daraus folgen kann. Das Computer-System kontrolliert nämlich das. WarGames – Kriegsspiele ist ein US-amerikanischer Film von John Badham aus dem Jahr Die Hauptrollen spielten Matthew Broderick und Ally Sheedy. WarGames, Wargames oder War Games ist der Titel folgender Filme: WarGames – Kriegsspiele (Originaltitel WarGames), amerikanischer Spielfilm von vagryttaren.se: Finden Sie WarGames - Kriegsspiele in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€. WarGames - Kriegsspiele. ()1h 52min 27 Stunden und 59 Minuten bleiben David Lightman, um das nukleare Desaster eines Dritten Weltkrieges zu​.

wargames

Business Wargames -. Spielend gegen den Wettbewerb gewinnen. Dr. Elke Theobald, Karsten Pillukeit vagryttaren.se Wargames - Kriegsspiele. WarGames. USA, ThrillerScience Fiction. Ein junger Hacker findet ein Programm, das er für ein Kriegsspiel hält. Doch das. WarGames - Kriegsspiele. ()1h 52min 27 Stunden und 59 Minuten bleiben David Lightman, um das nukleare Desaster eines Dritten Weltkrieges zu​.

Wargames Video

Blade Runner

Failed to combat electronic warfare attacks and protect your HQ units? Pea-soupy fog-of-war and debilitating order delays add to the delicious chaos.

Enemies are sharp too. Capable of speculative counter-battery fire, canny pontoon bridge building and cunning flanking manoeuvres, they ensure victories rarely come cheap.

The most impressive war machine to come out of Ukraine since the T, Graviteam Tactics is an Eastern Front RTS with a realism fixation and a campaign system to die for.

One of its weirdest pleasures is wandering the battlefield after a engagement, studying the colour-coded impact arrows that sprout from wrecked AFVs.

Campaigns are as predictable as swirling snowflakes thanks to the turn-based strategy layer that triggers battles. All GTOS veterans have stories to tell of chaotic night skirmishes and enemy tanks arriving from unexpected directions.

Other campaigns can feel awfully stilted in comparison. Bored of Overlord? Try a landing in Tanga, German East Africa, in Tired of tussling with Tommies and Yanks?

Link: Steam , GOG. Worried about multiplayer mischief, 1C Maddox worked hard to keep aircraft modders out of this landmark sim.

Bored of playing sky tig with Spits, Bfs and Zeros? It will nod enthusiastically if you express an interest in catapult-launched Hurricanes and North Atlantic convoy protection.

It will give a jaunty thumbs-up when asked if a weekend in twin-boomed Dutch Fokkers or Crimson Skies-style Shindens is a possibility.

As with SMG, enemy generals have palpable characters. Cunning, defensive, opportunist Lines of tiny soldiers surge and pivot, flank and fall back.

Caseshot-spitting cannons leave fields and thickets littered with corpses. An elegant control system movement arrows are drag-daubed directly onto the terrain , a low price, and an unusual consequence-rich branching campaign, ensure UGG stands out in the wargaming crowd.

Much of the tactical texture comes from the clever way pilot experience and aircraft movement is represented. As fliers rack up kills and amass flying hours, you get to add new manoeuvres to their repertoires.

More manoeuvres equals more dogfight options, more chances to get on the tail of that Albatross or limp home in that battered Pup.

They bob. They squirm. They slip and shake. Handsome plane models, well-appointed cockpits and brutal damage effects complement the feisty FMs.

You can swell your hangar bit by bit by buying single plane DLC or you can opt for one of the two starter packs—Iron Cross or Channel Battles—each of which come with around nine extra rides.

Some sunken-eyed sub sim veterans will argue Silent Hunter 3 should have occupied this berth. Intelligently modded, SH3 is a staggeringly strong sim: realistic, atmospheric, and—thanks to a freelance-friendly campaign—preposterously replayable.

The Pacific-plying SH4 sneaks in just ahead of its Atlantic ancestor, mainly on account of its prettier vistas and vessels, superior crew management system, and taskable auxiliary units.

The opportunities it affords to deliver commandos, recover downed pilots, and roam an ocean sprinkled with contested islands also help.

Be sure to stow classy adjuncts such as Reel Fleet Boat 2. If army approval, blue-chip ballistics, and an uncommonly civilised multiplayer scene are more important to you in a tank game than stunning views, bump-mapped beret badges, and bargain-basement pricing, then this is a sim you need to investigate.

Nine countries currently use SBPPE to train their tankers, the powerful scenario editor, multi-crew capability, and RTS-style map layer enabling coordination and command skills to be tested alongside shell-slinging proficiency.

Where other operational offerings expect you to spend hours laboriously chipping holes in torpid enemy lines, UoC encourages rapid thrusts and bold breakthroughs.

A simple yet resonant supply mechanic makes every offensive a fascinating gamble. As you scramble to secure VLs or pocket clusters of hostile units those cut off from supply sources quickly weaken one of the canniest AIs in the business is often attempting to pocket your pocketers.

A sequel introducing amphibious landings and para drops is en route. At some point circa , sim devs lost interest in sumptuous dynamic campaigns.

You choose one of historically based Western Front squadrons, flying plausible randomly-generated missions until the Armistice arrives or the Grim Reaper reaps.

Thanks to interesting mixed-ability AI, a nerve-fraying mechanical failure system, and a battlespace teeming with incidental activity, those missions rarely go according to plan.

Rise of Flight has the livelier flight models, but WOFF brings the air war to life more successfully than any of its peers.

The Credit Crunch and a disappearing distributor saw to that. The more you play this gritty Ost Front tank sim, the crueller that seems. Panzer Elite SE has the theatre variety and superior interface, but SF models the claustrophobic brutality of s armoured warfare with more conviction.

Is that protuberance on the horizon an AT gun, a hull-down StuG, or merely a stack of timber? Best give it a 76mm prod just in case.

Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. The basic unit of command is an individual soldier or small group of soldiers.

At this level, the specific capabilities of the soldiers and their armaments are described in detail. An example of a tactical-level games is Flames of War , in which players use miniature figurines to represent individual soldiers, and move them around on a scale model of the battlefield.

At the operational level , the scenario is a military campaign, and the basic unit of command is a large group of soldiers. At this level, the outcomes of battles are usually determined by a simple computation.

At the strategic level , the scenario is an entire war. The player addresses higher-level concerns such as economics, research, and diplomacy.

The time span of the game is in the order of months or years. No wargame can be perfectly realistic. A wargame's design must make trade-offs between realism, simplicity, and fun; and function with the constraints of its medium.

Military wargames need to be highly realistic, because their purpose is to prepare officers for real warfare.

Recreational wargames only need to be as realistic as it pleases the players; the emphasis is on verisimilitude rather than practical realism.

Fantasy wargames arguably stretch the definition of wargaming by representing fictional or anachronistic armaments, but they may still be called wargames if they resemble real warfare closely enough.

Whereas the rules of chess are relatively simple, wargames tend to have very sophisticated rules. Generally speaking, the more realistic a wargame seeks to be, the more complicated its rules must be.

Even experienced wargamers usually play with their rulebook on hand, because the rules for most wargames are too complex to fully memorize.

For many people, the complexity also makes wargames difficult to enjoy, but some players enjoy high realism, so finding a balance between realism and simplicity is tricky when it comes to recreational wargames.

One way to solve the problem of complexity is to use an umpire who has the discretion to arbitrate events, using whatever tools and knowledge he deems fit.

This solution is popular with military instructors because it allows them to apply their own expertise when they use wargames to instruct students.

The drawback of this approach is that the umpire must be very knowledgeable in warfare and impartial, else he may issue unrealistic or unfair rulings.

Another way to address complexity is to use a computer to automate some or all of the routine procedures. Video games can be both sophisticated and easy to learn, which is why computer wargames are more popular than tabletop wargames.

Every wargame must have a sense of scale , so that it may realistically simulate how topography, distance, and time affect warfare.

Military wargames typically aim to model time and space as realistically as is feasible. Recreational wargame designers, by contrast, tend to use abstract scaling techniques to make their wargames easier to learn and play.

Tabletop miniature wargames , for instance, cannot realistically model the range of modern firearms, because miniature wargaming models are typically built to a scale ratio between and If model soldiers could shoot each other from opposite ends of the table, without the need to maneuver, the game would not be much fun.

The miniature wargame Bolt Action solves this problem by reducing a rifle's range to 24 inches, a sub-machine gun's range to 12 inches, and a pistol's range to 6 inches.

Even if these ranges are not realistic, the proportions make intuitive sense and thus keep the game somewhat credible, all the while compressing the battle to fit the confines of the table.

Also, the ranges are multiples of 6, which makes them easier to remember. In real warfare, commanders have incomplete information about their enemy and the battlespace.

A wargame that conceals some information from the player is called a closed game. An open wargame has no secret information.

A closed wargame can simulate the espionage and reconnaissance aspects of war. Military wargames often use umpires to manage secret information.

The players may be forced to sit in separate rooms, and communicate their orders with the umpire in the game room, who in turn reports back only the information he judges the players should know.

Some recreational wargames use an umpire too, often referring to them as "the GameMaster" e. Warhammer 40, Rogue Trader. The fog of war is easy to simulate in a computer wargame, as a virtual environment is free of the constraints of a physical tabletop game.

Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming where units on the battlefield are represented by miniature models, as opposed to abstract pieces such as wooden blocks or plastic counters.

Likewise, the battlefield itself is represented by model terrain, as opposed to a flat board or map. Miniature wargaming tends to be more expensive and time-consuming than other forms of wargaming.

Furthermore, most manufacturers do not sell ready-to-play models, they sell boxes of model parts, which the players are expected to assemble and paint themselves.

This requires skill, time, and money, but many players actually prefer it this way because it gives them a way to show off their artistic skill.

Miniature wargaming is as much about artistry as it is about play. A board wargame is played on a board that has a more-or-less fixed layout and is supplied by the game's manufacturer.

This is in contrast to customizable playing fields made with modular components, such as in miniature wargaming. In block wargaming , the Fog of War is built into the game by representing units with upright wooden blocks that are marked on only one face, which is oriented towards the player who owns the block.

The opponent cannot see the markings from his position. The first such block wargame was Quebec by Columbia Games previously named Gamma Two Games , depicting the campaign surrounding the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

Because of their nature, cards are well suited for abstract games, as opposed to the simulation aspects of wargames. Traditional card games are not considered wargames even when nominally about the same subject such as the game War.

An early card wargame was Nuclear War , a 'tongue-in-cheek game of the end of the world', first published in and still published today by Flying Buffalo.

It does not simulate how any actual nuclear exchange would happen, but it is still structured unlike most card games because of the way it deals with its subject.

In the late s Battleline Publications a board wargame company produced two card games, Naval War and Armor Supremacy.

The first was fairly popular in wargaming circles, and is a light system of naval combat, though again not depicting any 'real' situation players may operate ships from opposing navies side-by-side.

Armor Supremacy was not as successful, but is a look at the constant design and development of new types of tanks during World War II.

The most successful card wargame as a card game and as a wargame would almost certainly be Up Front , a card game about tactical combat in World War II published by Avalon Hill in The abstractness is harnessed in the game by having the deck produce random terrain, and chances to fire, and the like, simulating uncertainty as to the local conditions nature of the terrain, etc.

Dan Verssen Games is a specialist designer and publisher of card games for several genres, including air combat and World War II and Modern land combat.

Also, card driven games CDGs , first introduced in , use a deck of custom cards to drive most elements of the game, such as unit movement activation and random events.

These are, however, distinctly board games, the deck is merely one of the most important elements of the game. The term "wargame" is rarely used in the video gaming hobby.

Most strategy video games depict realistic or semi-realistic scenarios of war anyway, so computer wargames are usually just called "strategy games".

If a strategy video game is especially realistic, they are often called "simulations". Computer wargames have many advantages over traditional wargames.

In a computer game, all the routine procedures and calculations are automated. The player needs only to make strategic and tactical decisions.

The learning curve for the player is smaller, as he doesn't have to master all the mechanics of the game.

The gameplay is faster, as a computer can process calculations much faster than a human. Computer wargames often have more sophisticated mechanics than traditional wargames thanks to automation.

Computer games tend to be cheaper than traditional wargames because, being software, they can be copied and distributed very efficiently.

It's easier for a player to find opponents with a computer game: a computer game can use artificial intelligence to provide a virtual opponent, or connect him to another human player over the Internet.

For these reasons, computers are now the dominant medium for wargaming. In the recent years, programs have been developed for computer-assisted gaming as regards to wargaming.

Two different categories can be distinguished: local computer assisted wargames and remote computer assisted wargames.

Local computer assisted wargames are mostly not designed toward recreating the battlefield inside computer memory, but employing the computer to play the role of game master by storing game rules and unit characteristics, tracking unit status and positions or distances, animating the game with sounds and voice and resolving combat.

Flow of play is simple: each turn, the units come up in a random order. Therefore, the more units an opponent has, the more chance he will be selected for the next turn.

When a unit comes up, the commander specifies an order and if offensive action is being taken, a target, along with details about distance.

The results of the order, base move distance and effect to target, are reported, and the unit is moved on the tabletop.

All distance relationships are tracked on the tabletop. All record-keeping is tracked by the computer. Remote computer assisted wargames can be considered as extensions to the concept of play-by-email gaming, however the presentation and actual capabilities are completely different.

They have been designed to replicate the look and feel of existing board or miniatures wargames on the computer.

The map and counters are presented to the user who can then manipulate these, more-or-less as if he were playing the physical game, and send a saved file off to his opponent, who can review what has been done without having to duplicate everything on his physical set-up of the game, and respond.

Some allow for both players to get on-line and see each other's moves in real-time. These systems are generally set up so that while one can play the game, the program has no knowledge of the rules, and cannot enforce them.

The human players must have a knowledge of the rules themselves. The idea is to promote the playing of the games by making play against a remote opponent easier , while supporting the industry and reducing copyright issues by ensuring that the players have access to the actual physical game.

The four main programs that can be used to play a number of games each are Aide de Camp , Cyberboard , Vassal and ZunTzu.

Aide de Camp is available for purchase, while the other three are offered free. Wargames were played remotely through the mail, with players sending lists of moves, or orders, to each other through the mail.

In some early PBM systems, six sided dice rolling was simulated by designating a specific stock and a future date and once that date passed, the players would determine an action's outcome using the sales in hundreds value for specific stocks on a specific date and then dividing the NYSE published sales in hundreds by six, using the remainder as the dice result.

Reality Simulations, Inc. The mechanics were the same, merely the medium was faster. At this time, turn-based strategy computer games still had a decent amount of popularity, and many started explicitly supporting the sending of saved-game files through email instead of needing to find the file to send to the opponent by hand.

As with all types of video games, the rise in home networking solutions and Internet access has also meant that networked games are now common and easy to set up.

Hellwig's wargame was the first true wargame because it attempted to be realistic enough to teach useful lessons in military strategy to future army officers.

Hellwig was a college professor and many of his students were aristocrats destined for military service. But Hellwig also wanted to sell his wargame commercially as a recreational item.

Hellwig chose to base his game on chess so as to make it attractive and accessible to chess players. As in chess, Hellwig's game was played on a grid of squares, but it was a much larger grid, and the squares were color-coded to represent different types of terrain: mountains, swamp, water, trenches, etc.

The layout of the terrain was not fixed, which allowed players to create their own custom battlefields. The pieces in the game represented real military units: cavalry, infantry, artillery, and various support units.

As in chess, only a single piece could occupy a square, and the pieces moved square by square, either laterally or diagonally.

Over normal terrain, infantry could move a maximum distance of eight squares, dragoons could move twelve squares, and light cavalry could move sixteen squares — intuitively mirroring the speed at which these units move in the real world.

But terrain could impede movement: mountains were impassable, swamps slowed units down, rivers could only be crossed with the help of a special pontoon unit, etc.

A player could only move one piece per turn, or one group of pieces if they were arranged in a rectangle.

A piece could capture an enemy piece by moving into its square, just like in chess, but infantry and artillery pieces could also shoot enemy pieces, at a maximum ranges of two to three squares.

Unlike chess, the pieces had orientation: for instance, an infantry piece could only shoot an enemy piece if they were facing it and flanking it.

Once the game was in progress, however, there was no hiding anything. Hellwig's wargame was a commercial success, and inspired other inventors to develop their own chess-like wargames.

Venturini's game was played on an even larger grid. Like Hellwig's game, it used a modular grid-based board.

But unlike Hellwig's game, Opiz's game used dice rolls to simulate the unpredictability of real warfare.

This innovation was controversial at the time. A criticism of the chess-like wargames of Hellwig, Venturini, and Opiz was that the pieces were constrained to move across a grid in chess-like fashion.

Only a single piece could occupy a square, even if that square represented a square mile; and the pieces had to move square by square, their exact location within a square being immaterial.

The grid also forced the terrain into unnatural forms, such as rivers that flowed in straight lines and bent at right angles. In , a Prussian army officer named Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von Reisswitz presented to the Prussian General Staff a highly realistic wargame that he and his father had developed over the years.

Instead of a chess-like grid, this game was played on accurate paper maps of the kind the Prussian army used. This allowed the game to model terrain naturally and simulate battles in real locations.

The pieces could be moved across the map in a free-form manner, subject to terrain obstacles. The pieces, each of which represented some kind of army unit an infantry battalion, a cavalry squadron, etc.

The pieces were painted either red or blue to indicate the faction it belonged to. The blue pieces were used to represent the Prussian army and red was used to represent some foreign enemy—since then it has been the convention in military wargaming to use blue to represent the faction to which the players actually belong to.

The game used dice to add a degree of randomness to combat. The scale of the map was and the pieces were made to the same proportions as the units they represented, such that each piece occupied the same relative space on the map as the corresponding unit did on the battlefield.

The game modeled the capabilities of the units realistically using data gathered by the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars.

Reisswitz's manual provided tables that listed how far each unit type could move in a round according to the terrain it was crossing and whether it was marching, running, galloping, etc.

The game used dice to determine combat results and inflicted casualties, and the casualties inflicted by firearms and artillery decreased over distance.

Unlike chess pieces, units in Reisswitz's game could suffer partial losses before being defeated, which were tracked on a sheet of paper recreational gamers might call this " hitpoint tracking".

The game also had some rules that modeled morale and exhaustion. Reisswitz's game also used an umpire.

The players did not directly control the pieces on the game map. Rather, they wrote orders for their virtual troops on pieces of paper, which they submitted to the umpire.

The umpire then moved the pieces across the game map according to how he judged the virtual troops would interpret and carry out their orders.

The umpire also managed secret information so as to simulate the fog of war. The umpire placed pieces on the map only for those units which he judged both sides could see.

He kept a mental track of where the hidden units were, and only placed their pieces on the map when he judged they came into view of the enemy.

Earlier wargames had fixed victory conditions, such as occupying the enemy's fortress. By contrast, Reisswitz's wargame was open-ended.

The umpire decided what the victory conditions were, if there were to be any, and they typically resembled the goals an actual army in battle might aim for.

The emphasis was on the experience of decision-making and strategic thinking, not on competition. As Reisswitz himself wrote: "The winning or losing, in the sense of a card or board game, does not come into it.

In the English-speaking world, Reisswitz's wargame and its variants are called Kriegsspiel , which is the German word for "wargame".

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Some fans still miss the randomly generated battlegrounds, bulging unit rosters and unscripted AI of the original trio, but progress in a visuals, spotting rules, infantry and artillery simulation make the shortcomings easy to bear.

One day CM will get a strat layer, and grognards the world over will pinch themselves silly. Most wargames cast us as incorporeal control freaks—lunatic leaders determined to spell out every order and nursemaid every unit.

The turn-free Command Ops is different. Australian AI master-craftsmen Panther Games provide a working command chain. Should the original scheme prove impractical, HQs are smart enough to re-plan on the fly.

Just about the only veterans still around and still making serious jet and helo diversions are Muscovites Eagle Dynamics.

Lately, ED have broadened their artificial horizons, becoming impresarios as well as artisans. Skies in the free DCS World now glitter with excellent third-party payware creations.

Anyone interested in superlative cockpit recreations, achingly authentic avionics, and top-notch flight models will find much to love here.

The history of this staggeringly ambitious F sim is as long and wiggly as the Norwegian coast.

Patches, politics, leaks, relaunches Where Falcon 4. There are no carefully arranged sortie sequences, no glib victory conditions or token representations of land war.

Pilots participate in vast unscripted conflicts, swarming with potential prey and threats. Link: Official site.

Like a faithful multi-role combat aircraft that stays in service long after its planned withdrawal date, EECH is simply too useful to retire.

Fifteen years on from release, it still offers a peerless combination of realism, playability and campaign unpredictability. Yes, the dynamic campaign engine serves up a fairly simplistic ground war.

But what other title lets you leap into the 3D cockpit of a Comanche or Hokum thanks to modders, Apaches, Hinds, Black Sharks, Havocs, Vipers and Kiowas are also available perform a quick cold-start, and go hunt AFVs, or reconnoitre or blitz an enemy base?

Failed to combat electronic warfare attacks and protect your HQ units? Pea-soupy fog-of-war and debilitating order delays add to the delicious chaos.

Enemies are sharp too. Capable of speculative counter-battery fire, canny pontoon bridge building and cunning flanking manoeuvres, they ensure victories rarely come cheap.

The most impressive war machine to come out of Ukraine since the T, Graviteam Tactics is an Eastern Front RTS with a realism fixation and a campaign system to die for.

One of its weirdest pleasures is wandering the battlefield after a engagement, studying the colour-coded impact arrows that sprout from wrecked AFVs.

Campaigns are as predictable as swirling snowflakes thanks to the turn-based strategy layer that triggers battles. All GTOS veterans have stories to tell of chaotic night skirmishes and enemy tanks arriving from unexpected directions.

Other campaigns can feel awfully stilted in comparison. Bored of Overlord? Try a landing in Tanga, German East Africa, in Tired of tussling with Tommies and Yanks?

Link: Steam , GOG. Worried about multiplayer mischief, 1C Maddox worked hard to keep aircraft modders out of this landmark sim.

Bored of playing sky tig with Spits, Bfs and Zeros? It will nod enthusiastically if you express an interest in catapult-launched Hurricanes and North Atlantic convoy protection.

It will give a jaunty thumbs-up when asked if a weekend in twin-boomed Dutch Fokkers or Crimson Skies-style Shindens is a possibility.

As with SMG, enemy generals have palpable characters. Cunning, defensive, opportunist Lines of tiny soldiers surge and pivot, flank and fall back.

Caseshot-spitting cannons leave fields and thickets littered with corpses. An elegant control system movement arrows are drag-daubed directly onto the terrain , a low price, and an unusual consequence-rich branching campaign, ensure UGG stands out in the wargaming crowd.

Much of the tactical texture comes from the clever way pilot experience and aircraft movement is represented. As fliers rack up kills and amass flying hours, you get to add new manoeuvres to their repertoires.

More manoeuvres equals more dogfight options, more chances to get on the tail of that Albatross or limp home in that battered Pup.

They bob. They squirm. They slip and shake. Handsome plane models, well-appointed cockpits and brutal damage effects complement the feisty FMs.

You can swell your hangar bit by bit by buying single plane DLC or you can opt for one of the two starter packs—Iron Cross or Channel Battles—each of which come with around nine extra rides.

Some sunken-eyed sub sim veterans will argue Silent Hunter 3 should have occupied this berth. After Prussia defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War , wargaming was widely adopted by military officers in other countries.

Civilian enthusiasts also played wargames for fun, but this was a niche hobby until the development of consumer electronic wargames in the s.

A military wargame is a wargame that is used by a military as a serious tool for training or research.

A recreational wargame is one played for fun, often in a competitive context. Recreational wargames can cover a wide variety of subjects, from pre-historic to modern — even fantasy or sci-fi combat.

Ones that do not include modern armaments and tactics are of limited interest to the military, though wargames covering famous historical battles can interest military historians.

As military wargames are used to prepare officers for actual warfare, there is naturally a strong emphasis on realism and current events.

Military organizations are typically secretive about their current wargames, and this makes designing a military wargame a challenge.

The data the designers require, such as the performance characteristics of weapons or the locations of military bases, are often classified, which makes it difficult for the designers to verify that their models are accurate.

Secrecy also makes it harder to disseminate corrections if the wargame has already been delivered to the clients.

Then there is the small player base. Whereas a commercial wargame might have thousands or even millions of players, military wargames tend to have small player bases, which makes it harder for the designers to acquire feedback.

As a consequence, errors in wargame models tend to persist. Although commercial wargame designers take consumer trends and player feedback into account, their products are usually designed and sold with a take-it-or-leave-it approach.

Military wargames, by contrast, are typically commissioned by the military that plans to use them. If a wargame is commissioned by several clients, then the designer will have to juggle their competing demands.

This can lead to great complexity, high development costs, and a compromised product that satisfies nobody.

Commercial wargames are under more pressure to deliver an enjoyable experience for the players, who expect a user-friendly interface, a reasonable learning curve, exciting gameplay, and so forth.

By contrast, military organizations tend to see wargaming as a tool and a chore, and players are often bluntly obliged to use whatever is provided to them.

Military wargames that are arbitrated by an umpire or the players themselves manual wargames tend to have simple models and computations compared to recreational wargames.

Umpires may even be allowed to make arbitrary decisions using their own expertise. One reason for this is to keep the learning curve small.

Recreational wargamers tend to have a lot of wargaming experience it is usually considered a hardcore hobby , so learning a complicated new wargame is easy if it is similar enough to ones they've already played.

By contrast, military officers typically have little or no wargaming experience. A second reason is that the technical data required to design an accurate and precise model, such as the performance characteristics of a fighter jet, is often classified.

The exact definition of "wargame" varies from one writer to the next and one organization to the next. To prevent confusion, this section will establish the general definition employed by this article.

A wargame must have a setting that is based on some historical era of warfare so as to establish what armaments the combatants may wield and the environment they fight in.

Among recreational wargamers, the most popular historical era is World War 2. Professional military wargamers prefer the modern era.

A fantasy setting depicts a fictional world in which the combatants wield fictional or anachronistic armaments, but it should be similar enough to some historical era of warfare such that the combatants fight in a familiar and credible way.

For instance, Warhammer Age of Sigmar has wizards and dragons, but the combat is mostly based on medieval warfare spearmen, archers, knights, etc.

A wargame's scenario describes the circumstances of the specific conflict being simulated, from the layout of the terrain to the exact composition of the fighting forces to the mission objectives of the players.

Historical wargamers often re-enact historical battles. Alternatively, players may construct a fictional scenario.

It is easier to design a balanced scenario where either player has a fair chance of winning if it is fictionalized. Board wargames usually have a fixed scenario.

A wargame's level of war determines to the scope of the scenario, the basic unit of command, and the degree to which lower level processes are abstracted.

At the tactical level , the scenario is a single battle. The basic unit of command is an individual soldier or small group of soldiers.

At this level, the specific capabilities of the soldiers and their armaments are described in detail. An example of a tactical-level games is Flames of War , in which players use miniature figurines to represent individual soldiers, and move them around on a scale model of the battlefield.

At the operational level , the scenario is a military campaign, and the basic unit of command is a large group of soldiers. At this level, the outcomes of battles are usually determined by a simple computation.

At the strategic level , the scenario is an entire war. The player addresses higher-level concerns such as economics, research, and diplomacy.

The time span of the game is in the order of months or years. No wargame can be perfectly realistic. A wargame's design must make trade-offs between realism, simplicity, and fun; and function with the constraints of its medium.

Military wargames need to be highly realistic, because their purpose is to prepare officers for real warfare. Recreational wargames only need to be as realistic as it pleases the players; the emphasis is on verisimilitude rather than practical realism.

Fantasy wargames arguably stretch the definition of wargaming by representing fictional or anachronistic armaments, but they may still be called wargames if they resemble real warfare closely enough.

Whereas the rules of chess are relatively simple, wargames tend to have very sophisticated rules. Generally speaking, the more realistic a wargame seeks to be, the more complicated its rules must be.

Even experienced wargamers usually play with their rulebook on hand, because the rules for most wargames are too complex to fully memorize.

For many people, the complexity also makes wargames difficult to enjoy, but some players enjoy high realism, so finding a balance between realism and simplicity is tricky when it comes to recreational wargames.

One way to solve the problem of complexity is to use an umpire who has the discretion to arbitrate events, using whatever tools and knowledge he deems fit.

This solution is popular with military instructors because it allows them to apply their own expertise when they use wargames to instruct students.

The drawback of this approach is that the umpire must be very knowledgeable in warfare and impartial, else he may issue unrealistic or unfair rulings.

Another way to address complexity is to use a computer to automate some or all of the routine procedures. Video games can be both sophisticated and easy to learn, which is why computer wargames are more popular than tabletop wargames.

Every wargame must have a sense of scale , so that it may realistically simulate how topography, distance, and time affect warfare.

Military wargames typically aim to model time and space as realistically as is feasible. Recreational wargame designers, by contrast, tend to use abstract scaling techniques to make their wargames easier to learn and play.

Tabletop miniature wargames , for instance, cannot realistically model the range of modern firearms, because miniature wargaming models are typically built to a scale ratio between and If model soldiers could shoot each other from opposite ends of the table, without the need to maneuver, the game would not be much fun.

The miniature wargame Bolt Action solves this problem by reducing a rifle's range to 24 inches, a sub-machine gun's range to 12 inches, and a pistol's range to 6 inches.

Even if these ranges are not realistic, the proportions make intuitive sense and thus keep the game somewhat credible, all the while compressing the battle to fit the confines of the table.

Also, the ranges are multiples of 6, which makes them easier to remember. In real warfare, commanders have incomplete information about their enemy and the battlespace.

A wargame that conceals some information from the player is called a closed game. An open wargame has no secret information.

A closed wargame can simulate the espionage and reconnaissance aspects of war. Military wargames often use umpires to manage secret information.

The players may be forced to sit in separate rooms, and communicate their orders with the umpire in the game room, who in turn reports back only the information he judges the players should know.

Some recreational wargames use an umpire too, often referring to them as "the GameMaster" e. Warhammer 40, Rogue Trader. The fog of war is easy to simulate in a computer wargame, as a virtual environment is free of the constraints of a physical tabletop game.

Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming where units on the battlefield are represented by miniature models, as opposed to abstract pieces such as wooden blocks or plastic counters.

Likewise, the battlefield itself is represented by model terrain, as opposed to a flat board or map.

Miniature wargaming tends to be more expensive and time-consuming than other forms of wargaming. Furthermore, most manufacturers do not sell ready-to-play models, they sell boxes of model parts, which the players are expected to assemble and paint themselves.

This requires skill, time, and money, but many players actually prefer it this way because it gives them a way to show off their artistic skill.

Miniature wargaming is as much about artistry as it is about play. A board wargame is played on a board that has a more-or-less fixed layout and is supplied by the game's manufacturer.

This is in contrast to customizable playing fields made with modular components, such as in miniature wargaming.

In block wargaming , the Fog of War is built into the game by representing units with upright wooden blocks that are marked on only one face, which is oriented towards the player who owns the block.

The opponent cannot see the markings from his position. The first such block wargame was Quebec by Columbia Games previously named Gamma Two Games , depicting the campaign surrounding the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

Because of their nature, cards are well suited for abstract games, as opposed to the simulation aspects of wargames.

Traditional card games are not considered wargames even when nominally about the same subject such as the game War.

An early card wargame was Nuclear War , a 'tongue-in-cheek game of the end of the world', first published in and still published today by Flying Buffalo.

It does not simulate how any actual nuclear exchange would happen, but it is still structured unlike most card games because of the way it deals with its subject.

In the late s Battleline Publications a board wargame company produced two card games, Naval War and Armor Supremacy.

The first was fairly popular in wargaming circles, and is a light system of naval combat, though again not depicting any 'real' situation players may operate ships from opposing navies side-by-side.

Armor Supremacy was not as successful, but is a look at the constant design and development of new types of tanks during World War II.

The most successful card wargame as a card game and as a wargame would almost certainly be Up Front , a card game about tactical combat in World War II published by Avalon Hill in The abstractness is harnessed in the game by having the deck produce random terrain, and chances to fire, and the like, simulating uncertainty as to the local conditions nature of the terrain, etc.

Dan Verssen Games is a specialist designer and publisher of card games for several genres, including air combat and World War II and Modern land combat.

Also, card driven games CDGs , first introduced in , use a deck of custom cards to drive most elements of the game, such as unit movement activation and random events.

These are, however, distinctly board games, the deck is merely one of the most important elements of the game. The term "wargame" is rarely used in the video gaming hobby.

Most strategy video games depict realistic or semi-realistic scenarios of war anyway, so computer wargames are usually just called "strategy games".

If a strategy video game is especially realistic, they are often called "simulations". Computer wargames have many advantages over traditional wargames.

In a computer game, all the routine procedures and calculations are automated. The player needs only to make strategic and tactical decisions.

The learning curve for the player is smaller, as he doesn't have to master all the mechanics of the game.

The gameplay is faster, as a computer can process calculations much faster than a human. Computer wargames often have more sophisticated mechanics than traditional wargames thanks to automation.

Computer games tend to be cheaper than traditional wargames because, being software, they can be copied and distributed very efficiently.

It's easier for a player to find opponents with a computer game: a computer game can use artificial intelligence to provide a virtual opponent, or connect him to another human player over the Internet.

For these reasons, computers are now the dominant medium for wargaming. In the recent years, programs have been developed for computer-assisted gaming as regards to wargaming.

Two different categories can be distinguished: local computer assisted wargames and remote computer assisted wargames. Local computer assisted wargames are mostly not designed toward recreating the battlefield inside computer memory, but employing the computer to play the role of game master by storing game rules and unit characteristics, tracking unit status and positions or distances, animating the game with sounds and voice and resolving combat.

Flow of play is simple: each turn, the units come up in a random order. Therefore, the more units an opponent has, the more chance he will be selected for the next turn.

When a unit comes up, the commander specifies an order and if offensive action is being taken, a target, along with details about distance.

The results of the order, base move distance and effect to target, are reported, and the unit is moved on the tabletop. All distance relationships are tracked on the tabletop.

All record-keeping is tracked by the computer. Remote computer assisted wargames can be considered as extensions to the concept of play-by-email gaming, however the presentation and actual capabilities are completely different.

They have been designed to replicate the look and feel of existing board or miniatures wargames on the computer. The map and counters are presented to the user who can then manipulate these, more-or-less as if he were playing the physical game, and send a saved file off to his opponent, who can review what has been done without having to duplicate everything on his physical set-up of the game, and respond.

Some allow for both players to get on-line and see each other's moves in real-time. These systems are generally set up so that while one can play the game, the program has no knowledge of the rules, and cannot enforce them.

The human players must have a knowledge of the rules themselves. The idea is to promote the playing of the games by making play against a remote opponent easier , while supporting the industry and reducing copyright issues by ensuring that the players have access to the actual physical game.

The four main programs that can be used to play a number of games each are Aide de Camp , Cyberboard , Vassal and ZunTzu.

Aide de Camp is available for purchase, while the other three are offered free. Wargames were played remotely through the mail, with players sending lists of moves, or orders, to each other through the mail.

In some early PBM systems, six sided dice rolling was simulated by designating a specific stock and a future date and once that date passed, the players would determine an action's outcome using the sales in hundreds value for specific stocks on a specific date and then dividing the NYSE published sales in hundreds by six, using the remainder as the dice result.

Reality Simulations, Inc. The mechanics were the same, merely the medium was faster. At this time, turn-based strategy computer games still had a decent amount of popularity, and many started explicitly supporting the sending of saved-game files through email instead of needing to find the file to send to the opponent by hand.

As with all types of video games, the rise in home networking solutions and Internet access has also meant that networked games are now common and easy to set up.

Hellwig's wargame was the first true wargame because it attempted to be realistic enough to teach useful lessons in military strategy to future army officers.

Hellwig was a college professor and many of his students were aristocrats destined for military service. But Hellwig also wanted to sell his wargame commercially as a recreational item.

Hellwig chose to base his game on chess so as to make it attractive and accessible to chess players. As in chess, Hellwig's game was played on a grid of squares, but it was a much larger grid, and the squares were color-coded to represent different types of terrain: mountains, swamp, water, trenches, etc.

The layout of the terrain was not fixed, which allowed players to create their own custom battlefields. The pieces in the game represented real military units: cavalry, infantry, artillery, and various support units.

As in chess, only a single piece could occupy a square, and the pieces moved square by square, either laterally or diagonally.

Over normal terrain, infantry could move a maximum distance of eight squares, dragoons could move twelve squares, and light cavalry could move sixteen squares — intuitively mirroring the speed at which these units move in the real world.

But terrain could impede movement: mountains were impassable, swamps slowed units down, rivers could only be crossed with the help of a special pontoon unit, etc.

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