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This is thought to be due to Israeli jackals having hybridized with dogs, gray wolves, and African golden wolves,  creating a hybrid zone in Israel.
Genetic analysis reveals that mating sometimes occurs between female jackals and gray wolves, producing jackal-wolf hybrids that experts cannot visually distinguish from wolves.
In , whole genome sequencing was used to compare members of the genus Canis. The study supports the African golden wolf being distinct from the golden jackal, and with the Ethiopian wolf being genetically basal to both.
There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, and gray wolves. One African golden wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed high admixture with the Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs, highlighting the role of the land bridge between the African and Eurasian continents in canid evolution.
There was evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, and least with North American wolves.
The study proposes that the golden jackal ancestry found in North American wolves may have occurred before the divergence of the Eurasian and North American wolves.
The golden jackal was taxonomically subordinated to the genus Canis by the Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae.
Nominate subspecies. The golden jackal is similar to the gray wolf but is distinguished by its smaller size, lighter weight, more elongated torso, less-prominent forehead, shorter legs and tail, and a muzzle that is narrower and more pointed.
The skull is most like that of the dingo , and is closer to that of the coyote C. This feature was once associated with magical powers by the people of Sri Lanka.
The jackal's fur is coarse and relatively short,  with the base color golden, varying seasonally from a pale creamy yellow to a dark tawny.
The fur on the back is composed of a mixture of black, brown, and white hairs, sometimes giving the appearance of the dark saddle like that seen on the black-backed jackal.
The underparts are a light pale ginger to cream color. Individual specimens can be distinguished by their unique light markings on the throat and chest.
The bushy tail has a tan to black tip. The jackal moults twice a year, in spring and in autumn. In Transcaucasia and Tajikistan , the spring moult begins at the end of winter.
If the winter has been warm, the spring moult starts in the middle of February; if the winter has been cold, it begins in the middle of March.
The spring moult lasts for 60—65 days; if the animal is sick, it loses only half of its winter fur. The spring moult commences with the head and limbs, extends to the flanks, chest, belly and rump, and ends at the tail.
Fur on the underparts is absent. The autumn moult occurs from mid-September with the growth of winter fur; the shedding of the summer fur occurs at the same time.
The development of the autumn coat starts with the rump and tail and spreads to the back, flanks, belly, chest, limbs and head, with full winter fur being attained at the end of November.
The golden jackal's omnivorous diet allows it to eat a large range of foods; this diet, together with its tolerance of dry conditions, enables it to live in different habitats.
The jackal's long legs and lithe body allow it to trot over great distances in search of food. It is able to go without water for extended periods and has been observed on islands that have no fresh water.
In Central Asia they avoid waterless deserts and cannot be found in the Karakum Desert nor the Kyzylkum Desert , but can be found at their edges or in oases.
They are not adapted to snow, and in snow country they must travel along paths made by larger animals or humans.
The golden jackal is both a predator and a scavenger,  and an omnivorous and opportunistic forager with a diet that varies according to its habitat and the season.
Vegetable matter forms part of the jackal diet, and in India they feed intensively on the fruits of buckthorn , dogbane , Java plum , and the pods of mesquite and the golden rain tree.
The jackal will scavenge off the kills made by the lion, tiger, leopard, dhole, and gray wolf. In some regions of Bangladesh and India, jackals subsist by scavenging on carrion and garbage, and will cache extra food by burying it.
Although the species of the wolf approaches very near to that of the dog, yet the jackal seems to be placed between them; to the savage fierceness of the wolf it adds the impudent familiarity of the dog It is more noisy in its pursuits even than the dog, and more voracious than the wolf.
In the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, golden jackals primarily hunt hares and mouse -like rodents, and also pheasants , francolins , ducks , coots , moorhens , and passerines.
Vegetable matter eaten by Jackals in these areas includes fruits, such as pears , hawthorn , dogwood , and the cones of common medlars.
The jackal is implicated in the destruction of grape , watermelon , muskmelon , and nut crops. Near the Vakhsh River , their spring diet consists almost exclusively of plant bulbs and the roots of wild sugar cane , while during winter they feed on wild stony olives.
Around the edges of the Karakum Desert , jackals feed on gerbils , lizards , snakes , fish , muskrats , the fruits of wild stony olives, mulberry , dried apricots , watermelons, muskmelons, tomatoes , and grapes.
In Dalmatia , the golden jackal's diet consists of mammals, fruits, vegetables, insects, birds and their eggs, grasses and leaves.
In Serbia, their diet is primarily livestock carcasses that are increasingly prevalent due to a lack of removal, and this may have led to the expansion of their population.
Golden jackals exhibit flexible social organization depending on the availability of food. The breeding pair is the basic social unit, and they are sometimes accompanied by their current litter of pups.
Scent marking is thought to assist in territorial defense. The hunting ranges of several jackals can overlap. Non-breeding members of a pack may stay near a distant food source, such as a carcass, for up to several days before returning to their home range.
Social interactions such as greetings, grooming, and group howling are common in jackals. Howling is more frequent between December and April when pair bonds are being formed and breeding occurs, which suggests howling has a role in the delineation of territory and for defense.
Howling begins with 2—3 low-pitched calls that rise to high-pitched calls. Adults may howl to accompany the ringing of church bells, with their young responding to sirens or the whistles of steam engines and boats.
Jackals, wolves and coyotes will always approach a source of howling. Golden jackals are monogamous and will remain with the one partner until death.
Breeding occurs from October to March in Israel and from February to March in India, Turkmenistan,  Bulgaria, and Transcaucasia, with the mating period lasting up to 26—28 days.
Females undergoing their first estrus are often pursued by several males that may quarrel among themselves. Gestation lasts 63 days, and the timing of the births coincides with the annual abundance of food.
In India, the golden jackal will take over the dens of the Bengal fox and the Indian crested porcupine , and will use abandoned gray wolf dens.
Den excavations commence from late April to May in India, with dens located in scrub areas. Rivulets, gullies, and road and check-dam embankments are prime denning habitats.
Drainage pipes and culverts have been used as dens. Young pups can be moved between 2—4 dens. In Dagestan and Azerbaijan , litters are sometimes located within the hollows of fallen trees, among tree roots, and under stones on river banks.
In Central Asia, the golden jackal does not dig burrows but constructs lairs in dense tugai thickets. Jackals in the tugais and cultivated lands of Tajikistan construct lairs in long grass, shrubs, and reed openings.
In Transcaucasia, golden jackal pups are born from late March to late April,  and in northeastern Italy during late April;  they can be born at any time of year in Nepal.
Jackals in Transcaucasia give birth to 3—8 pups, Tajikistan 3—7 pups, Uzbekistan 2—8 pups, and Bulgaria 4—7 pups; in India the average is four pups.
Pups are born with soft fur that ranges in color from light gray to dark brown. At the age of one month, their fur is shed and replaced with a new reddish-colored pelt with black speckles.
The pups have a fast growth rate and weigh 0. Dog pups show unrestrained fighting with their siblings from 2 weeks of age, with injury avoided only due to their undeveloped jaw muscles.
This fighting gives way to play-chasing with the development of running skills at 4—5 weeks. Wolf pups possess more-developed jaw muscles from 2 weeks of age, when they first show signs of play-fighting with their siblings; serious fighting occurs during 4—6 weeks of age.
This aggression ceases by 10—12 weeks when a hierarchy has formed. Pups born late remain with their mother until early autumn, at which time they leave either singly or in groups of two to four individuals.
Females reach sexual maturity after 10—11 months and males at 21—22 months. The golden jackal often hunts alone, and sometimes in pairs, but rarely hunts in a pack.
When hunting alone, it trots around an area and occasionally stops to sniff and listen. Once prey is located, the jackal conceals itself, quickly approaches its prey and then pounces on it.
They hunt rodents in grass by locating them with their hearing before leaping into the air and pouncing on them. In India, they can dig Indian gerbils out from their burrows, and they can hunt young, old, and infirm ungulates up to 4—5 times their body weight.
Jackals search for hiding blackbuck calves throughout the day during the calving period. The peak times for their searches are the early morning and the late evening.
When hunting in pairs or packs, jackals run parallel to their prey and overtake it in unison. When hunting aquatic rodents or birds, they will run along both sides of narrow rivers or streams and drive their prey from one jackal to another.
Pack-hunting of langurs is recorded in India. Packs of between 5 and 18 jackals scavenging on the carcasses of large ungulates is recorded in India and Israel.
Jackals stalk close to these roosting harriers and then rush at them, attempting to catch one before the harriers can take off or gain sufficient height to escape.
In Southeastern Asia, golden jackals have been known to hunt alongside dhole packs. These solitary jackals, known as kol-bahl , will associate themselves with a particular tiger, trailing it at a safe distance to feed on the big cat's kills.
A kol-bahl will even alert a tiger to prey with a loud "pheal". Tigers have been known to tolerate these jackals, with one report describing how a jackal confidently walked in and out between three tigers walking together.
The jackal's competitors are the red fox, wolf, jungle cat, wildcat, and raccoon in the Caucasus, and the steppe wildcat in Central Asia.
One experiment used loudspeakers to broadcast the calls of jackals, and this attracted wolves at a trotting pace to chase away the perceived competitors.
Dogs responded to these calls in the same way while barking aggressively. Unleashed dogs have been observed to immediately chase away jackals when the jackals were detected.
The jackal's recent expansion throughout eastern and western Europe has been attributed to the extermination of the local wolf populations.
The present diffusion of the jackal into the northern Adriatic hinterland is in areas where the wolf is absent or very rare. Leopards once hunted jackals, but today the leopard is rare and the tiger is extinct in the jackal's range.
Red foxes and golden jackals share similar diets. Red foxes fear jackals, which are three times bigger than red foxes.
Red foxes will avoid close proximity to jackals and fox populations decrease where jackals are abundant.
Some golden jackals carry diseases and parasites harmful to human health. These include rabies , and Donovan's Leishmania that is harmless to jackals but may cause leishmaniasis in people.
Jackals in southwestern Tajikistan can carry up to 16 species of parasitic cestodes flatworm , roundworms , and acanthocephalans thorny-headed worms , these are: Sparganum mansoni , Diphyllobothrium mansonoides , Taenia hydatigena , T.
Jackals infected with Dracunculus medinensis can infect bodies of water with their eggs, which cause dracunculiasis in people who drink from them.
Jackals may also play a large part in spreading coenurosis in sheep and cattle, and canine distemper in dogs.
In Tajikistan, jackals may carry up to 12 tick species which include Ixodes , Rhipicephalus turanicus , R. In Iran, some golden jackals carry intestinal worms helminths  and Echinococcus granulosus.
The jackal is dispersing across Europe through rivers and valleys, bringing parasites into regions where these did not previously exist.
The golden jackal is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its widespread distribution, with it being common throughout its range and with high densities in those areas where food and shelter are abundant.
Golden jackals in Europe fall under various international legal instruments. The Council Directive provides both guidance and limits on what participating governments can do when responding to the arrival of expanding jackals.
These legislative instruments aim to contribute to conserving native wildlife; some governments argue that the golden jackal is not native wildlife but an invading species.
The group also has an interest in the golden jackal's relationship with its environment across Eurasia. Membership is open to anyone who has an interest in golden jackals.
In Europe, there are an estimated 70, golden jackals. Their protection in Austria and Turkey depends on the part of the country.
Their status in Moldova is not known. The Syrian jackal was common in Israel and Lebanon in the s—40s, but their populations were reduced during an anti- rabies campaign.
Its current status is difficult to ascertain, due to possible hybridisation with pariah dogs and African golden wolves.
Golden jackals appear in Indian folklore and in two ancient texts, the Jakatas and the Panchatantra , where they are portrayed as intelligent and wily creatures.
The Panchatantra tells the fable of a jackal who cheats a wolf and a lion out of their shares of a camel.
For a person embarking on an early morning journey, hearing a jackal howl was considered to be a sign of impending good fortune, as was seeing a jackal crossing a road from the left side.
In Hinduism , the jackal is portrayed as the familiar of several deities with the most common being Chamunda , the emaciated, devouring goddess of the cremation grounds.
Another deity associated with jackals is Kali , who inhabits the cremation ground and is surrounded by millions of jackals.
According to the Tantrasara scripture, when offered animal flesh, Kali appears in the form of a jackal. The goddess Shivaduti is depicted with a jackal's head.
Jackals are considered to be the vahanas vehicles of various protective Hindu and Buddhist deities, particularly in Tibet. In the Marwahi forest division of the Chhattisgarh state in eastern India, the jackal is of conservation value and there were no jackal attacks reported before During — there were reported cases of jackal attacks on humans, although none were fatal.
The majority of these attacks occurred in villages, followed by forests and crop fields. Jackals build their dens in the bouldery hillocks that surround flat areas, and these areas have been encroached by human agriculture and settlements.
This encroachment has led to habitat fragmentation and the need for jackals to enter agricultural areas and villages in search for food, resulting in conflict with humans.
People in this region habitually chase jackals from their villages, which leads to the jackals becoming aggressive. Female jackals with pups respond with an attack more often than lone males.
In comparison, over twice as many attacks were carried out by Sloth bears over the same period. The golden jackal can be a harmful pest that attacks domestic animals such as turkeys , lambs, sheep , goats , domestic water buffalo calves, and valuable game species like newborn roe deer , hares , coypu , pheasants , francolins , grey partridges , bustards and waterfowl.
In southern Bulgaria, over 1, attacks on sheep and lambs were recorded between and , along with some damage to newborn deer in game farms.
The damage by jackals in Bulgaria was minimal when compared to the livestock losses due to wolves. Golden jackals are extremely harmful to fur-bearing rodents, such as coypu and muskrats.
Coypu can be completely extirpated in shallow water bodies. During — in the Amu Darya , muskrats constituted Jackals also harm the fur industry by eating muskrats caught in traps or taking skins left out to dry.
During British rule in India , sportsmen conducted golden jackal hunting on horseback with hounds, with jackal coursing a substitute for the fox hunting of their native England.
India's weather and terrain added further challenges to jackal hunters that were not present in England: the hounds of India were rarely in as good condition as English hounds, and although the golden jackal has a strong odor, the terrain of northern India was not good in retaining scent.
Jackals were hunted in three ways: with greyhounds , with foxhounds , and with mixed packs. Hunting jackals with greyhounds offered poor sport because greyhounds were too fast for jackals, and mixed packs were too difficult to control.
They distinguished three types of jackal: the "city scavenger", which was described as being slow and so smelly that dogs did not like to follow them; the "village jack", which was described as being faster, more alert, and less odorous; and the "open-country jack", which was described as being the fastest, cleanest, and providing the best sport of all three populations.
Some indigenous people of India, such as the Kolis and Vaghirs of Gujarat and Rajasthan and the Narikuravas in Tamil Nadu , hunt and eat golden jackals, but the majority of South Asian cultures consider the animal to be unclean.
The orthodox dharma texts forbid the eating of jackals because they have five nails. The jackals can only reach the meat by jumping, and are then hooked by the lip or jaw.
In Russia and the other nations of the former Soviet Union, golden jackals are considered furbearers of low quality because of their sparse, coarse, and monotonously colored fur.
The jackals of Asia and the Middle East produce the coarsest pelts, though this can be remedied during the dressing process. Elburz in northern Iran produces the softest furs.
During the s, jackals were captured annually in Mervsk and in the Zakatal area of the Transcaucasus, with jackals being captured there during In this same period, a total of 10, jackals were taken within Russia and their furs sent exclusively to the Nizhegorod fair.
In the early s there were 20,—25, jackal skins tanned annually in the Soviet Union, but these could not be utilized within the country, and so the majority were exported to the United States.
Commencing from , they were all used within the Soviet Union. The golden jackal may have once been tamed in Neolithic Turkey 11, years ago, as there is a sculpture of a man cradling a jackal found in Göbekli Tepe.
The Russian military established the Red Star kennels in to improve the performance of working dogs and to conduct military dog research.
By the s, the ability of Russia's bomb and narcotic detection dogs were assessed as being inadequate. Klim Sulimov, a research scientist with the DS Likhachev Scientific Research Institute for Cultural Heritage and Environmental Protection, began cross-breeding dogs with their wild relatives in an attempt to improve their scent-detection abilities.
The researchers assumed that during domestication dogs had lost some of their scent-detection ability because they no longer had to detect prey.
Sulimov crossed European jackals with Laikas, and also with fox terriers to add trainability and loyalty to the mix.
He used the jackal because he believed that it was the wild ancestor of the dog, that it had superior scent-detecting ability, and, because it was smaller with more endurance than the dog, it could be housed outdoors in the Russian climate.
Sulimov favored a mix of one quarter jackal and three-quarters dog. Sulimov's program continues today with the use of the hybrid Sulimov dogs at the Sheremetyevo Airport near Moscow by the Russian airline Aeroflot.
The hybrid program has been criticized, with one of Sulimov's colleagues pointing out that in other tests the Laika performed just as well as the jackal hybrids.
The assumption that dogs have lost some of their scent-detection ability may be incorrect, in that dogs need to be able to scent-detect and identify the many humans that they come into contact with in their domesticated environment.
Another researcher crossed German Shepherds with wolves and claimed that this hybrid had superior scent-detection abilities. The scientific evidence to support the claims of hybrid researchers is minimal, and more research has been called for.
The word 'jackal' appeared in the English language around From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Canis aureus.
This article is about the canid native to Eurasia. For the canid native to Africa, see African golden wolf. Temporal range: Late Pleistocene — Recent.
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Comptes Rendus Palevol. Extant Carnivora species. Suborder Feliformia. African palm civet N. Marsh mongoose A. Bushy-tailed mongoose B.
Alexander's kusimanse C. Yellow mongoose C. Pousargues's mongoose D. Angolan slender mongoose G.
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Short-tailed mongoose H. White-tailed mongoose I. Liberian mongoose L. Gambian mongoose M. Selous' mongoose P.
Meller's mongoose R. Meerkat S. Spotted hyena C. Brown hyena H. Aardwolf P. Family Felidae. Cheetah A. Caracal C.
Bay cat C. European wildcat F. Ocelot L. Serval L. Canada lynx L. Pallas's cat O. Marbled cat P. Fishing cat P.
Cougar P. Jaguarundi H. Lion P. Clouded leopard N. Family Viverridae. Binturong A. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M.
Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Otter civet C. Hose's palm civet D.
Banded palm civet H. Banded linsang P. African civet C. Abyssinian genet G. Central African oyan P.
Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Family Eupleridae. Fossa C. Eastern falanouc E. Malagasy civet F.
Ring-tailed mongoose G. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. Narrow-striped mongoose M. Brown-tailed mongoose S.
Suborder Caniformia cont. Giant panda A. Sun bear H. Sloth bear M. Spectacled bear T. American black bear U.
Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Hooded skunk M. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B.
Ring-tailed cat B. White-nosed coati N. Western mountain coati N. Kinkajou P. Crab-eating raccoon P.
Red panda A. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O.
New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Walrus O. Hooded seal C. Bearded seal E. Grey seal H. Ribbon seal H.
Leopard seal H. Weddell seal L. Crabeater seal L. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M.
Ross seal O. Harp seal P. Spotted seal P. Caspian seal P. Family Canidae includes dogs. Short-eared dog A.
Side-striped jackal C. Crab-eating fox C. Maned wolf C. Dhole C.